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A Modest Glossary of Spondyloarthritis Terms: A through L

A collection of important spondyloarthritis terms.
A Modest Glossary of Spondyloarthritis Terms: A through L
Photo by Amador Loureiro / Unsplash

Achilles tendon 

Spondyloarthritis causes lower back pain in the spine or sacroiliac joints, with stiffness and mobility issues. Other symptoms include eye inflammation, urination pain, rashes, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Achilles tendonitis is a common symptom. 

B cells, maybe...

B cells may be involved in AS pathogenesis due to disturbances in circulating B cell populations and formation of auto-reactive and non-autoreactive antibodies. Deletion of B cells using rituximab can benefit patients with AS.


AS causes chest pain and stiffness due to costochondritis, a condition that limits chest expansion and causes pain when breathing deeply. Chest inflammation is common in 70% of cases.


Diabetes is a risk factor for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, with interconnections with rheumatoid arthritis, AS, osteoporosis, and SLE. T1DM incidence has increased and comorbidities with autoimmune disorders are being studied. 


Spondyloarthritis (SpA) causes pain in areas around the body due to pressure from daily activities. Advancements in imaging, animal studies, and genetics have made it easier to understand its causes and treatments. Entheses, where hard and soft tissues meet, represent areas of concentrated physical stress and repetitive biomechanical impact. Biologic drugs help treat SpA.


Ankylosing spondylitis patients experience fluctuations in disease severity, characterized by increased back pain, fatigue, and emotional upset. Episodes can last from a few days to a few weeks.


Spondyloarthritis has common etiopathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations due to a genetic predisposition. Gut inflammation is present in patients with SpA, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Subclinical gut inflammation is an important pathophysiological event actively participating in the pathogenesis of the disease

Heart Problems 

AS increases CV morbidity and mortality, but it is unclear if it is due to cardiac manifestations or a concomitant increase in CV diseases. Standardized mortality rates for hypertensive diseases and diabetes mellitus are elevated in AS.


Spondyloarthritis is an inflammatory arthritis affecting the spine, causing low back pain and ankylosing spondylitis. It often inflames entheses and is more common in males in their teens or 20s. Symptoms include pain and swelling in large joints of the arms and legs.