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A Modest Glossary of Spondyloarthritis Terms: M through Z

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Mental health

Axial spondyloarthritis patients have a 51% higher risk of developing depression and anxiety compared to those without the condition. A US-based survey found that 57% of patients with axSpA reported psychological distress and 81.6% reported high degrees of functional impairment. However, many research studies may be overlooking a large portion of patients who experience poor mental health despite official diagnoses.



Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder where bone strength is compromised, increasing the risk of fractures. It is a recognized entity in many inflammatory diseases, and new methods are needed to diagnose chronic inflammatory arthritis. Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a common type of inflammatory arthritis that affects the axial skeleton, including the sacroiliac joints and vertebrae.


18.3% of patients in the REGISPONSER database had psoriasis, with 330 having it before and 103 after rheumatic symptoms. Patients with earlier symptoms had shorter disease duration, lower body mass index, and fewer antigens and uveitis.


Peripheral spondyloarthritis (SPA) is a type of arthritis with symptoms that are predominantly or entirely peripheral, including arthritis, enthesitis, and dactylitis. It includes patients with psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, SpA related to inflammatory bowel disease, and those who do not meet established definitions for axial SpA. However, there is considerable overlap between axial and peripheral SpA, and the binary division between the two is rarely used in practice.





Probable sarcopenic SpA patients have higher CRP, BASDAI score, lower gait speed, and SarQoL score than normal grip strength patients. Probable sarcopenia is associated with higher inflammation, impaired muscle performance, and quality of life.



Spondyloarthritis patients may experience uveitis, which can lead to vision loss and complications. Treatment options range from local therapies to systemic drugs, including nonsteroidal and biologic therapies, to manage ophthalmic manifestations.


HLA-B27 prevalence varies globally and locally, with spondyloarthritis-related diseases. AxSpA patients with axSpA are mostly Black and women, but women are more likely to have nr-axSpA, which has a lower prevalence than AS.